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The Ins and Outs of prepositions - A Guidebook for ESL Students 1999.pdf

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文档介绍:< Prev I l@ve RuBoard Next >
Page i
The Ins and Outs of Prepositions
by Jean Yates
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Page iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction V

Part One: The Prepositions
How to Use Part One 3
1 · About 5
2 · Above 8
3 · Across 9
4 · After 10
5 · Against 12
6 · Ahead Of* 14
7 · Along 15
8 · Among 16
9 · Around 17
10 · As 19
11 · At 20
12 · Back to*/Back From* 25
13 · Before 27
14 · Behind 28
15 · Below 29
16 · Beneath 30
16 · Beneath 30
17 · Beside 31
18 · Besides 32
19 · Between 33
20 · Beyond 34
21 · But 35
22 · By 36
23 · Close to* 39
24 · Despite/In Spite Of* 40
25 · Down 41
26 · During 43
27 · Except 44
28 · Far From* 45
29 · For 46
30 · From 53
31 · In 56
32 · In Back Of* 68
33 · In Front Of* 69
34 · Inside 70
35 · Instead Of* 71
36 · Into 72
37 · Like 74
38 · Near 75
38 · Near 75
39 · Next To* 76
40 · Of 77
41 · Off 83
42 · On 87
43 · Onto 97
44 · On Top Of* 98
45 · Opposite 99
46 · Out 100
47 · Outside 105
48 · Over 106
49 · Past 110
50 · Through 111
51 · Throughout 114
52 · To 115
53 · Toward 121
54 · Towards 122
55 · Under 123
56 · Underneath 125
57 · Until 126
58 · Up 127
59 · With 133
60 · Within 139
60 · Within 139
61 · Without 140
* Two- or Three-binations That Function As Prepositions
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Page v
INTRODUCTION
Prepositions pose more problems for the non-native speaker or learner of English
than any other part of speech. Why? Prepositions are just little words that never
change in form; they are pronounced softly, in unstressed syllables; they aren't even
given capital letters in book titles; native speakers choose the correct ones without
thinking. How can they be confusing?
The word "preposition" has a straightforward definition: a word placed before a
noun or pronoun to define its relationship with another word in the sentence. For the
learner of English, however, prepositions are anything but straightforward.
—Prepositions are difficult, if not impossible, to define without using other
prepositions.
Example:
In the sentence, "The book is on the table," what does on mean?
On means "above and supported by."
—In no other language are the prepositions (if they exist at all) the exact equivalents
of English prepositions.
Example:
Spanish English
Vive en Washington. He lives in Washington.
Vive en la Avenida New Jersey. He lives on New Jersey Avenue.
El está en el aeropuerto. He is at the airport.
Estoy pensando en ti. I am thinking about you, or
I am thinking of you.
—Many preposition words can also be adverbs or conjunctions.
Examples:
the preposition down She walked down the hill.
the adverb down He put the book down.
the preposition after She took a nap after lunch.
the conjunction after She went outside after she put the book
down.
—Many prepositions can indicate more than one meaning or relationship.
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